Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers. It includes development of both hardware and software. Computing has become a critical, integral component of modern industrial technology. Major computing disciplines include computer engineering, computer science, cybersecurity, data science, information systems, information technology and software engineering.

“In a general way, we can define computing to mean any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers. Thus, computing includes designing and building hardware and software systems for a wide range of purposes; processing, structuring, and managing various kinds of information; doing scientific studies using computers; making computer systems behave intelligently; creating and using communications and entertainment media; finding and gathering information relevant to any particular purpose, and so on. The list is virtually endless, and the possibilities are vast.”ACM also defines seven sub-disciplines of the computing field:Computer engineering.Computer science.Cybersecurity.Data science.Information systems.Information technology.Software engineering.

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Computing also has other meanings that are more specific, based on the context in which the term is used. For example, an information systems specialist will view computing somewhat differently from a software engineer. Regardless of the context, doing computing well can be complicated and difficult. Because society needs people to do computing well, we must think of computing not only as a profession but also as a discipline.The term “computing” has sometimes been narrowly defined, as in a 1989 ACM report on Computing as a Discipline:The discipline of computing is the systematic study of algorithmic processes that describe and transform information: their theory, analysis, design, efficiency, implementation, and application. The fundamental question underlying all computing is “What can be (efficiently) automated?”The term “computing” is also synonymous with counting and calculating. In earlier times, it was used in reference to the action performed by mechanical computing machines, and before that, to human computers.History[edit]Main articles: History of computing and Timeline of computing. The history of computing is longer than the history of computing hardware and modern computing technology and includes the history of methods intended for pen and paper or for chalk and slate, with or without the aid of tables.

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                                                                                                   Computing is intimately tied to the representation of numbers. But long before abstractions like the number arose, there were mathematical concepts to serve the purposes of civilization.[clarification needed] These concepts include one-to-one correspondence (the basis of counting), comparison to a standard (used for measurement), and the 3-4-5 right triangle (a device for assuring a right angle).The earliest known tool for use in computation was the abacus, and it was thought to have been invented in Babylon circa 2400 BC. Its original style of usage was by lines drawn in sand with pebbles. Abaci, of a more modern design, are still used as calculation tools today. This was the first known calculation aid – preceding Greek methods by 2,000 years[citation needed].The first recorded idea of using digital electronics for computing was the 1931 paper “The Use of Thyratrons for High Speed Automatic Counting of Physical Phenomena” by C. E. Wynn-Williams. Claude Shannon’s 1938 paper “A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits” then introduced the idea of using electronics for Boolean algebraic operations.The concept of a field-effect transistor was proposed by Julius Edgar Lilienfeld in 1925. John Bardeen and Walter Brattain, while working under William Shockley at Bell Labs, built the first working transistor, the point-contact transistor, in 1947. In 1953, the University of Manchester built the first transistorized computer, called the Transistor Computer. However, early junction transistors were relatively bulky devices that were difficult to manufacture on a mass-production basis, which limited them to a number of specialised applications. The metal–oxide–silicon field-effect transistor (MOSFET, or MOS transistor) was invented by Mohamed Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959. It was the first truly compact transistor that could be miniaturised and mass-produced for a wide range of uses. The MOSFET made it possible to build high-density integrated circuit chips, leading to what is known as the computer revolution or microcomputer revolution.Computer Main articles: Computer, Outline of computers, and Glossary of computer termsA computer is a machine that manipulates data according to a set of instructions called a computer program. The program has an executable form that the computer can use directly to execute the instructions.

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   The same program in its human-readable source code form, enables a programmer to study and develop a sequence of steps known as an algorithm. Because the instructions can be carried out in different types of computers, a single set of source instructions converts to machine instructions according to the CPU type.The execution process carries out the instructions in a computer program. Instructions express the computations performed by the computer. They trigger sequences of simple actions on the executing machine. Those actions produce effects according to the semantics of the instructions.Computer software and hardware Computer software, or just “software”, is a collection of computer programs and related data that provides the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it. Software refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of the computer for some purposes. In other words, software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation concerned with the operation of a data processing system. Program software performs the function of the program it implements, either by directly providing instructions to the computer hardware or by serving as input to another piece of software.

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 The term was coined to contrast with the old term hardware (meaning physical devices). In contrast to hardware, software is intangible.  Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only.Application software[edit]Main article: Application softwareApplication software, also known as an “application” or an “app”, is a computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks. Examples include enterprise software, accounting software, office suites, graphics software and media players. Many application programs deal principally with documents. Apps may be bundled with the computer and its system software, or may be published separately. Some users are satisfied with the bundled apps and need never install additional applications.Application software is contrasted with system software and middleware, which manage and integrate a computer’s capabilities, but typically do not directly apply them in the performance of tasks that benefit the user. The system software serves the application, which in turn serves the user.Application software applies the power of a particular computing platform or system software to a particular purpose. Some apps such as Microsoft Office are available in versions for several different platforms; others have narrower requirements and are thus called, for example, a Geography application for Windows or an Android application for education or Linux gaming. Sometimes a new and popular application arises that only runs on one platform, increasing the desirability of that platform.

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This is called a killer application.System software[edit]Main article: System softwareSystem software, or systems software, is computer software designed to operate and control the computer hardware, and to provide a platform for running application software. System software includes operating systems, utility software, device drivers, window systems, and firmware. Frequently used development tools such as compilers, linkers, and debuggers are classified as system software.Computer network[edit]Main article: Computer networkA computer network, often simply referred to as a network, is a collection of hardware components and computers interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information.  Where at least one process in one device is able to send/receive data to/from at least one process residing in a remote device, then the two devices are said to be in a network.Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics such as the medium used to transport the data, communications protocol used, scale, topology, and organizational scope.Communications protocols define the rules and data formats for exchanging information in a computer network, and provide the basis

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for network programming. Well-known communications protocols include Ethernet, a hardware and Link Layer standard that is ubiquitous in local area networks, and the Internet Protocol Suite, which defines a set of protocols for internetworking, i.e. for data communication between multiple networks, as well as host-to-host data transfer, and application-specific data transmission formats.Computer networking is sometimes considered a sub-discipline of electrical engineering, telecommunications, computer science, information technology or computer engineering, since it relies upon the theoretical and practical application of these disciplines.Internet[edit]Main article: InternetThe Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use the standard Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users that consists of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government networks, of local to global scope, that are linked by a broad array of electronic, wireless and optical networking technologies. The Internet carries an extensive range of information resources and services, such as the inter-linked hypertext documents of the World Wide Web and the infrastructure to support email.Computer

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programming[edit]Main articles: Computer programming and Software engineeringComputer programming in general is the process of writing, testing, debugging, and maintaining the source code and documentation of computer programs. This source code is written in a programming language, which is an artificial language often more restrictive or demanding than natural languages, but easily translated by the computer. The purpose of programming is to invoke the desired behavior (customization) from the machine. The process of writing high quality source code requires knowledge of both the application’s domain and the computer science domain. The highest-quality software is thus developed by a team of various domain experts, each person a specialist in some area of development. But the term programmer may apply to a range of program quality, from hacker to open source contributor to professional. And a single programmer could do most or all of the computer programming needed to generate the proof of concept to launch a new “killer” application.Computer programmer[edit]Main articles: Programmer, Software engineer, and Software developerA programmer, computer programmer, or coder is a person who writes computer software. The term computer programmer can refer to a specialist in one area of computer programming or to a generalist who writes code for many kinds of software.

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 One who practices or professes a formal approach to programming may also be known as a programmer analyst. A programmer’s primary computer language (C, C++, Java, Lisp, Python, etc.) is often prefixed to the above titles, and those who work in a web environment often prefix their titles with web. The term programmer can be used to refer to a software developer, software engineer, computer scientist, or software analyst. However, members of these professions typically possess other software engineering skills, beyond programming.

 

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8 Responses

  1. Wow… The computer era, what a great era! Thanks for writing this article that takes its reader on a journey back in time to get to know how the whole thing about computer started. It is great getting to learn and know the history of those things that are of great importance to the world, and your article has just given me that greatness as I got to learn a lot.

  2. I have done quite a few courses on computers where they have included history. Advancement in computers is evolving all the time. But I will never forget when I first saw a computer as a teenager. It was huge! It took up the whole basement and I remember being absolutely fascinated. And as always progress in technology has advanced so much since then. I find your web page fascinating to read. I was curious about one thing why did you have [edit] in your post.

  3. I’m not sure if it was a mistake but the text on this article is very big! Nonetheless, I was able to get very valuable information from this and I have applied it to my daily use in the digital world and on my digital quests! I have really obtained a lot of value and I will soon be coming back to this site to learn more from you. Thank you so much, I appreciate it a lot 

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